Zebra Mussels

This is a growing concern with all the local lakes. 2022世界杯买球app的服务部门,了解我们如何帮助清洁您的2022世界杯买球app,以确保斑马贻贝的蔓延被阻止. (402) 339-9600

What is the scientific name?

The scientific name is Dreissena polymorpha.

What is it?

Zebra mussels are a type of mollusk, which also includes a wide variety of organisms such as squids, octopuses, snails, oysters, scallops, and clams.

What does it look like?

Mussels are also called 'bivalves'. 这意味着它们有两个壳瓣或瓣膜(一个左瓣和一个右瓣). 斑马贻贝得名于每个瓣膜上的深色条纹图案. Usually the shell is a light color (tan, beige) with the zig-zag stripes. 然而,有些几乎完全是棕色的,条纹不明显. Even more rare are those nearly all light colored with little striping.

Zebra Mussels

How big do they get?

Generally, zebra mussels are small, averaging about an inch long. Two inches is approximately the maximum size. Their life span is four to five years.

Where are they from?

斑马贻贝原产于东欧和西亚的淡水河流和湖泊. In 1769, Pallas在俄罗斯里海和乌拉尔河首次描述了该物种的种群. For more information, click NAS http://nas.er.usgs.gov/zebra.mussel/

When were they first found in the United States?

Zebra mussels were first discovered in Lake St. Clair in 1988. Lake St. 克莱尔位于密歇根州底特律市东部,位于休伦湖和伊利湖之间.

Where are they?

斑马贻贝迅速蔓延到整个大湖地区和密西西比河东部流域的大型通航河流,包括密西西比河, Tennessee, Cumberland, Ohio, Arkansas, and Illinois rivers. They can also be found in the Hudson River on the Atlantic Slope. 这些大河上的驳2022世界杯买球app运输帮助分散了斑马贻贝在这里的头几年. 从那时起,主要扩散到五大湖地区的小湖泊. 目前,有超过230个湖泊有斑马贻贝. 最近的这种分散可能主要是由于娱乐活动,如划2022世界杯买球app和钓鱼.

How did they get here?

科学家们普遍认为,斑马贻贝是从欧洲远洋2022世界杯买球app只倾倒的压舱水进入五大湖的. Ballast water is used to keep ships stable in the water. The amount of water carried is dependent on the amount of cargo on board. 一艘2022世界杯买球app在没有货物的情况下会装载大量压舱水,在装载货物时将其倾倒在港口.

Why should we care about the zebra mussel?

许多入侵物种都有共同的特征,这些特征使它们非常适应新环境. 斑马贻贝有可能栖息在美国的大部分淡水中.S. 并可能影响到各种本地水生物种,最终影响到整个生态系统. They also have had a large economic impact already. 许多发电厂和用水户不得不花费数百万美元从设施中清除斑马贻贝. In addition, 更多的资金被用于改造设施,安装防止斑马贻贝进入并监控它们的设备. These costs get passed along to the consumers.

What do they eat?

They are primarily algae feeders. They feed by filtering the water through a siphon, up to a liter per day. This is why they like the insides of pipes so well, there is a constant supply of water and food flowing by them.

What impact are they having on the ecosystem?

One of the most well-documented impacts is on our native mussels. 成千上万的斑马贻贝将自己固定在本地贻贝身上,使得本地贻贝无法正常工作. As many as 10,000 zebra mussels have attached to a single native mussel. Our natives have all but disappeared in Lake St. Clair and the western basin of Lake Erie. 斑马贻贝也在以惊人的速度过滤五大湖,使湖泊变得非常清澈. 大多数人认为,水中能见度的提高一定意味着水“更干净”. Not true. 它们所做的就是过滤掉所有的藻类,而这些藻类通常是本地微生物的食物.

Do zebra mussels have any predators?

Zebra mussels do not have many natural predators in North America. But, 据文献记载,有几种鱼类和潜水鸭以它们为食.

Are zebra mussels edible?

Most clams and mussels are edible, but that does not mean they taste good! 许多物种,鱼和鸭子都吃斑马贻贝,所以从这个意义上说,它们是无害的. 斑马贻贝很小,里面没有太多的“肉”, you would have to be pretty hungry to want to eat them. However, because they are filter feeders, 它们可以在组织中积累污染物,这些污染物可能不利于人体健康. 你应该2022世界杯买球app当地的公共卫生官员,了解食用来自特定水域的贻贝或鱼是否安全. Therefore to be safe, it is not recommended they be eaten by people.

What's unusual about the species?

  • Once they are drawn into a pipe filled with water, they can grow and clog the pipe until the water stops flowing.
  • Females can lay over one million eggs in a spawning season.
  • 它们附着在通常很硬的表面上,很难去除. 这是生活在海洋(咸水)生态系统中的贻贝的共同特征, but not of freshwater mussels.
  • 如果环境潮湿,它们可以承受短期(几天)离开水.
  • They have a saltwater relative, the dark false mussel (Mytilopsis leucophaeata), which is native to our Atlantic coast. 这种亲戚看起来非常像斑马贻贝,经常被误认为是它. 如果你在盐水中发现斑马贻贝,它可能是黑色的假贻贝.
  • 斑马贻贝幼虫(称为veligers)是微小的大小,是不被人类的眼睛发现. 它们可能在不知不觉中被2022世界杯买球app、井、鱼饵桶或任何携带少量水的东西(甚至是潜水设备)运送。.

How can the spread be prevented?

美国地质调查局的重点是记录斑马贻贝的地理分布,并尽可能多地了解其行为和生物学特性. 由此产生的信息被认为对帮助制定旨在遏制或控制其传播的战略至关重要. 同时,捕捞和运输用作诱饵、食物或水族馆宠物是非常不鼓励的. 我们鼓励良好的2022世界杯买球app卫生,也就是说,如果可能的话,用温暖的肥皂水清洗你的2022世界杯买球app. 不把水从生活井和鱼饵桶从一个水体运输到另一个. 如果可能的话,把它们倒在陆地上,把剩下的诱饵扔进垃圾桶. 大多数情况下,这些诱饵鱼和斑马贻贝一样,都不是本地的.

What methods are being used to control zebra mussels inside power plants?

Zebra Mussels

已经研究了许多方法来帮助控制斑马贻贝. They are listed below in no particular order. Some methods will work better than others in a particular situation.

  • 化学杀螺剂:氧化性(氯,二氧化氯)和非氧化性.
  • Manual removal (pigging, high pressure wash).
  • Manual removal (pigging, high pressure wash).
  • 脱水/干燥(冷冻,加热空气)斑马贻贝-点击放大.
  • Thermal (steam injection, hot water >32°C).
  • Acoustical vibration.
  • Electrical current.
  • Filters, Screens.
  • Coatings: Toxic (copper, zinc) and Non-toxic (silicone-based).
  • Toxic constructed piping (copper, brass, galvanized metals).
  • Carbon dioxide injection.
  • Ultraviolet light.
  • Anoxia / Hypoxia.
  • Flushing.

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Dreissena Species - A Closer Look

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